Researchgate wiki index fund share money

An index fund also index tracker is a mutual fund or exchange-traded fund ETF designed to follow certain preset rules so that the fund can track a specified basket of underlying investments. Index funds may also have rules that screen for social and sustainable criteria.

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An index fund's rules of construction clearly identify the type of companies suitable for the fund. Additional index funds within these geographic markets may include indexes of companies that include rules based on company characteristics or factors, such as companies that are small, mid-sized, large, small value, large value, small growth, large growth, the level of gross profitability or investment capital, real estate, or indexes based on commodities and fixed-income.

Companies are purchased and held within the index fund when they meet the specific index rules or parameters and are sold when they move outside of those rules or parameters. Think of an index fund as an investment utilizing rules-based investing. Some index providers announce changes of the companies in their index before the change date whilst other index providers do not make such announcements.

The main advantage of index funds for investors is they don't require much time to manage as the investors don't have to spend time analyzing various stocks or stock portfolios. Some legal scholars have previously suggested an value maximization and agency-costs theory for understanding index funds stewardship. One index provider, Dow Jones Indexes, hasindices. Dow Jones Indexes says that all its products are maintained according to clear, unbiased, and systematic methodologies that are fully integrated within index families.

As of [update]index funds made up Index domestic equity mutual funds and index-based exchange-traded funds ETFshave benefited from a trend towards more index-oriented investment products. Index-based domestic equity ETFs have grown particularly quickly, attracting almost twice the flows of index domestic equity mutual funds since The first theoretical model for an index fund was suggested in by Edward Renshaw and Paul Feldsteinboth students at the University of Chicago.

While their idea for an "Unmanaged Investment Company" garnered little support, it did start off a sequence of events in the s that led to the creation of the first index fund in the next decade. Qualidex Fund, Inc. Dutcher Jr. It was becoming well known in the popular financial press that most mutual funds were not beating the market indices. Malkiel wrote:. What we need is a no-load, minimum management-fee mutual fund that simply buys the hundreds of stocks making up the broad stock-market averages and does no trading from security to security in an attempt to catch the winners.

Whenever below-average performance on the part of any mutual fund is noticed, fund spokesmen are quick to point out "You can't buy the averages.You may have heard about index funds from a friend, on TV, or on a podcast.

But what are they, exactly? An index fund is a type of mutual fund or exchange-traded fund ETF. But are index funds right for you? Learn the pros and cons, how index funds compare to actively managed funds, and how to choose an index fund for your portfolio.

For example, the Dow Jones Industrial Average is a broad market index made up of 30 blue-chip stockswhile the U. Global Jets Index tracks the global airline industry as a sector index.

The index can also act as a market's benchmark, or way of measuring performance. You can't directly invest in an index, as it's purely a mathematical construct. However, you can invest in an index fund, either through an index mutual fund or an ETF.

Index funds are passively managed, which means they typically hold what's in the index which rarely changes to maximize returns and minimize costs. Most mutual funds and a few ETFs are actively managedgiving fund managers the ability to trade any security in their market segment as often as they like in an effort to beat the benchmark.

Here are a few examples of index funds and what each one tracks:. Before buying an index fund, investors need to evaluate a few important factors:. As with any investment vehicle, the investor should read all the information available about the fund, especially the fund's prospectus. Over the past 10 years, index funds, ETFs, and mutual funds have consistently outperformed actively managed funds. In general, index funds can be a very good investment. Some investors can find their own answers, and others may need the help of a financial advisor.

The Balance does not provide tax, investment, or financial services and advice. The information is presented without consideration of the investment objectives, risk tolerance, or financial circumstances of any specific investor and might not be suitable for all investors.

Past performance is not indicative of future results. Investing involves risk, including the possible loss of principal.

The Wharton School. Investing for Beginners. Getting Started.An index mutual fund is said to provide broad market exposure, low operating expenses, and low portfolio turnover.

These funds follow their benchmark index regardless of the state of the markets.

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Index funds are generally considered ideal core portfolio holdings for retirement accounts, such as individual retirement accounts IRAs and k accounts.

Legendary investor Warren Buffett has recommended index funds as a haven for savings for the later years of life. Instead of a fund portfolio manager actively stock picking and market timing —that is, choosing securities to invest in and strategizing when to buy and sell them—the fund manager builds a portfolio whose holdings mirror the securities of a particular index.

researchgate wiki index fund share money

The idea is that by mimicking the profile of the index—the stock market as a whole, or a broad segment of it—the fund will match its performance as well. There is an index, and an index fund, for nearly every financial market in existence. In the U. But several other indexes are widely used as well, including:. An index fund tracking the DJIA, for example, would invest in the same 30, large and publicly-owned companies that comprise that index.

Portfolios of index funds substantially only change when their benchmark indexes change. If the fund is following a weighted index, its managers may periodically re-balance the percentage of different securities to reflect the weight of their presence in the benchmark. Weighting is a method used to balance out the influence of any single holding in an index or a portfolio. Investing in an index fund is a form of passive investing.

The opposite strategy is active investing, as realized in actively managed mutual funds—the ones with the securities-picking, market-timing portfolio manager described above. One primary advantage that index funds have over their actively managed counterparts is the lower management expense ratio. A fund's expense ratio—also known as the management expense ratio—includes all of the operating expenses such as the payment to advisors and managers, transaction fees, taxes, and accounting fees.

Since the index fund managers are simply replicating the performance of a benchmark index, they do not need the services of research analysts and others that assist in the stock-selection process.

4 things you might not know about index funds

Managers of index funds trade holdings less often, incurring fewer transaction fees and commissions. In contrast, actively managed funds have larger staffs and conduct more transactions, driving up the cost of doing business.

The extra costs of fund management are reflected in the fund's expense ratio and get passed on to investors. As a result, cheap index funds often cost less than a percent—0. Expense ratios directly impact the overall performance of a fund.

Actively managed funds, with their often-higher expense ratios, are automatically at a disadvantage to index funds, and struggle to keep up with their benchmarks in terms of overall return. If you have an online brokerage accountcheck its mutual fund or ETF screener to see which index funds are available to you.

Lowered expense leads to better performance. Advocates argue that passive funds have been successful in outperforming most actively managed mutual funds.

5 reasons to avoid index funds

It is true that a majority of mutual funds fail to beat broad indexes. On the other hand, passively managed funds do not attempt to beat the market. Their strategy instead seeks to match the overall risk and return of the market—on the theory that the market always wins. Passive management leading to positive performance tends to be true over the long term. With shorter timespans, active mutual funds do better. In other words, over one-third of them beat it in the short term.

Also, in other categories, actively managed money rules.

researchgate wiki index fund share money

Even over the long term, when an actively managed fund is good, it is very, very good. They've significantly outperformed the market in one- three- and five-year periods, too. Index funds have been around since the s.

List of Australian exchange-traded funds

The popularity of passive investing, the appeal of low fees, and a long-running bull market have combined to send them soaring in the s. The one fund that started it all, founded by Vanguard chairman John Bogle inremains one of the best for its overall long-term performance and low cost.

It posts a one-year return of 7.Most investors have heard of index funds, but not everybody understands how really good they are. If you have a spouse or partner who doesn't want to put in the time and work to understand investing, index funds make it easy.

Actively managed funds are much more complex and challenging than index funds. There are at least 1, ways to build an actively managed portfolio, and it's essentially impossible to prove in advance which ones are the most effective.

Index funds are not like that at all. When I was an investment advisor, I had many clients who struggled to educate their spouses about investing. Index funds don't have to keep a lot of cash on hand.

researchgate wiki index fund share money

Why should you care about that? Mainly because, as anybody who invests in money-marker funds knows only too well, cash is a low-return investment. Typically, an actively managed fund keeps more than two percentage points more cash than an index fund. That alone robs shareholders of probably one-tenth of a percent of return.

Investors in index funds tend to be patient investors. That means these funds don't usually experience heavy outflows of cash in bad times or heavy inflows in good times. When an actively managed fund has stellar performance, it attracts lots of new money.

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A manager will most likely have to use that new money to "chase" a relatively small group of stocks. This buying pressure can drive up stock prices, forcing the fund manager to pay higher prices than would otherwise be the case. This affects all shareholders by reducing the fund's future gains. And when a fund goes from the top of the heap to the bottom, the reverse happens: Shareholders want their money; stocks have to be sold at unfavorable prices; trading costs go up, and the patient shareholders who stay the course see the value of their shares decline.

Once you commit your investment strategy to index funds, you will never again need the help of a securities salesperson.

That means you eliminate a source of advice that's potentially so bad it could easily cost you hundreds of thousands of dollars. Investors conveniently forget the unprofitable moves they made, often the result of advice that seemed sensible at the time. I have a friend who wanted to remind himself of this.

But the "best ideas" turned out to be mostly dogs. Index funds are easy and boring. If you want your investments to be a hobby that's engaging, exciting, intriguing, challenging, and a source of bragging rights, you probably won't like index funds.

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But if your priority is achieving above-average returns with little or no work, index funds should be just your cup of tea. Consider these points:. Index funds automatically make you an above-average investor. The reason is ironic: Index-fund managers don't try to beat the market.ResearchGate is a European commercial social networking site for scientists and researchers [3] to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators.

While reading articles does not require registration, people who wish to become site members need to have an email address at a recognized institution or to be manually confirmed as a published researcher in order to sign up for an account. Users may also follow the activities of other users and engage in discussions with them. Users are also able to block interactions with other users.

The site has been criticized for sending unsolicited email invitations to coauthors of the articles listed on the site that were written to appear as if the email messages were sent by the other coauthors of the articles a practice the site said it had discontinued as of November [9] and for automatically generating apparent profiles for non-users who have sometimes felt misrepresented by them.

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As of [update]it has more than 15 million users, [1] with its largest user-bases coming from Europe and North America. ResearchGate publishes an author-level metric in the form of an "RG Score".

Guide to Index Fund Investing

RG score is not a citation impact measure. RG Scores have been reported to be correlated with existing author-level metrics, but have also been criticized as having questionable reliability and an unknown calculation methodology.

ResearchGate was founded in [12] by virologist Dr. The company's first round of funding, inwas led by the venture capital firm Benchmark. According to The New York Timesthe website began with few features, then was developed further based on input from scientists.

The company grew from 12 employees in to in ResearchGate's competitors include Academia. A article in BusinessWeek reported that ResearchGate was a "potentially powerful link" in promoting innovation in developing countries by connecting scientists from those nations with their peers in industrialized nations.

It also said that ResearchGate had been involved in several notable cross-country collaborations between scientists that led to substantive developments. Academic reception of ResearchGate remains generally positive, as recent reviews of extant literature show an accepting audience with broad coverage of concepts.

Although ResearchGate is used internationally, its uptake—as of —is uneven, with Brazil having particularly many users and China having few when compared to the number of publishing researchers. A article in Times Higher Education reported that in a global survey of 20, people who use academic social networking sites, ResearchGate was the dominant network and was twice as popular as others: 61 percent of respondents who had published at least one paper had a ResearchGate profile.

In the context of the big deal cancellations by several library systems in the world, the wide usage of ResearchGate was credited as one of the factors which reduced the apparent value of the subscriptions to toll access resources. ResearchGate had been criticized by many users for its decision to not remove convicted sex offenders from its social networking site.

Many researchers deleted their account in protest as they refused to remove convicted child pornographer and registered sex offender in CanadaBen Levin as a user. ResearchGate has been criticized for emailing unsolicited invitations to the coauthors of its users. A study published by the Association for Information Systems in found that a dormant account on ResearchGate, using default settings, generated invitations to 38 people over a month period, and that the user profile was automatically attributed to more than publications.

Several studies have looked at the RG score, for which details about how it is calculated are not published. These studies concluded that the RG score was "intransparent and irreproducible", [18] criticized the way it incorporates the journal impact factor into the user score, and suggested that it should "not be considered in the evaluation of academics".

It was also found to be strongly positively correlated with Quacquarelli Symonds university rankings at the institutional level, but only weakly with Elsevier SciVal rankings of individual authors.

Nature also reported that "Some of the apparent profiles on the site are not owned by real people, but are created automatically — and incompletely — by scraping details of people's affiliations, publication records and PDFs, if available, from around the web. That annoys researchers who do not want to be on the site, and who feel that the pages misrepresent them — especially when they discover that ResearchGate will not take down the pages when asked. ResearchGate has also been criticized for failing to provide safeguards against "the dark side of academic writing", including such phenomena as fake publishers, "ghost journals", publishers with "predatory" publication feesand fake impact ratings.

It has also been criticized for copyright infringement of published works. In Septemberlawyers representing the International Association of Scientific, Technical, and Medical Publishers STM sent a letter to ResearchGate threatening legal action against them for copyright infringement and demanding them to alter their handling of uploaded articles to include pre-release checking for copyright violations and "Specifically, [for ResearchGate to] end its extraction of content from hosted articles and the modification of any hosted content, including any and all metadata.

It would also mean an end to Researchgate's own copying and downloading of published journal article content and the creation of internal databases of articles. ResearchGate has managed to achieve an agreement on article uploading with three other major publishers, Springer NatureCambridge University Press and Thieme.

Under the agreement, the publishers will be notified when their articles are uploaded but will not be able to premoderate uploads.Last Updated: March 28, References. This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness.

There are 13 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 15, times. Learn more Index funds work by matching or tracking a market index to generate a return on investment. They do not fluctuate based on the market and are considered stable, passive investments.

Buying index funds can help to boost your mutual funds portfolio and provide you with a long-term investment you can cash in on once you retire. Start by choosing index funds that suit your needs. Then, buy index funds through an investment firm or a broker.

Once you invest in the index funds, maintains them so they remain a profitable, stable addition to your portfolio. To buy index funds, consider buying an ETF index fund if you don't have a lot of capital to start with since they're cheap to buy into and generally have good returns.

Or, if you want a higher return on your investment, look into buying mid-size or small-cap index funds. You can buy them from a mutual fund company, or through a broker if you're only looking for a one-time investment.

To learn how to get a good return on your investment, scroll down! Did this summary help you?

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Yes No. Please help us continue to provide you with our trusted how-to guides and videos for free by whitelisting wikiHow on your ad blocker. Log in Facebook. No account yet? Create an account.Index investing is a strategy that involves creating portfolios around a stock index, a benchmark, or a market average.

Index investing is often used anonymously with the term passive investing, but there are a handful of reasons why some people believe that the average investor should avoid index funds altogether. Here are five of those reasons. The stock market has proved to be a great investment in the long run, but over the years it has had its fair share of bumps and bruises.

In most cases, hedging is only a temporary solution. Index investing does not allow for advantageous behavior. If a stock becomes overvalued, it actually starts to carry more weight in the index.

Unfortunately, this is just when astute investors would want to be lowering their portfolios' exposure to that stock.

So even if you have a clear idea of a stock that is overvalued or undervalued, if you invest solely through an index, you will not be able to act on that knowledge. Indexes are set portfolios. If an investor buys an index fund, they have no control over the individual holdings in the portfolio. You may have specific companies that you like and want to own, such as a favorite bank or food company that you have researched and want to buy.

Similarly, in everyday life, you may have experiences that lead you believe that one company is markedly better than another; maybe it has better brands, management or customer service.

As a result, you may want to invest in that company specifically and not in its peers. At the same time, you may have ill feelings toward other companies for moral or other personal reasons. For example, you may have issues with the way a company treats the environment or the products it makes. Your portfolio can be augmented by adding specific stocks you like, but the components of an index portion are out of your hands.

There are countless strategies that investors have used with success; unfortunately, buying an index of the market may not give you access to a lot of these good ideas and strategies. Investing strategies can, at times, be combined to provide investors with better risk-adjusted returns. If you conduct research, you may be able to find the best value stocksthe best growth stocks and the best stocks for other strategies.

After you've done the research, you can combine them into a smaller, more targeted portfolio. You may be able to provide yourself with a better-positioned portfolio than the overall market, or one that's better suited to your personal goals and risk tolerances.

Finally, investing can be worrying and stressful, especially during times of market turmoil. Selecting certain stocks may leave you constantly checking quotesand can keep you awake at night, but these situations will not be averted by investing in an index. You can still find yourself constantly checking on how the market is performing and being worried sick about the economic landscape. On top of this, you will lose the satisfaction and excitement of making good investments and being successful with your money.

There have been studies both in favor and against active management. Many managers perform worse than their comparative benchmarksbut that does not change the fact that there are exceptional managers who regularly outperform the market. Index investing has merit if you want to take a broad economic view, but there are many reasons why it's not always the best route to achieving your personal investing goals.

Investing Essentials. Top ETFs.

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Life Insurance. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Part Of. Introduction to Index Funds.


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